According to the labor relations industry, the standard measurement for the success of any labor relations framework is the degree of resulting "labor relations harmony" and "labor peace." In public employment, however, another consideration is gaining equal, if not greater importance in the face of growing tax revolts and budget constraints on public officials. The cost aspect of the collective bargaining process is in dire need of accurate and reliable assessment techniques if forecast and fiscal planning are to be of any practical value. Local government fiscal insolvency, after all, has occurred often enough to deserve serious attention to its various causes and methods of avoidance. The Costs of Collective Bargaining in the Modesto City School Districts: A Case Study, is limited to the costs of the bargaining process itself and does not include results of bargaining, such as salary increases and fringe benefits.